Punjab University MA Political Science Syllabus

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Punjab University MA Political Science Syllabus For Private Candidates

It is hereby notified that the Syndicate at its meeting held on 30-07-2011 has approved the recommendations of the Academic Council, dated 17-06-2010 regarding conversion of Semester System into Annual System and also approved Syllabi & Courses of Reading for M.A Political Science w.e.f. the Academic Session 2009, at the Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The Syllabi & Courses of Reading for M.A Political Science is attached herewith

DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB, LAHORE The following syllabi and course of reading for M.A. Part I and Part II (New Scheme) Examination in Political Science 2018-Onward is hereby notified

PU M.A. Political Science Part 1 Syllabus

  Outlines of Tests Marks
Paper 1 Western Political Thought 100
Paper 2 Muslim Political Thought 100
Paper 3 Comparative and Developmental Politics 100
Paper 4 International Relations 100
Paper 5 Ideology and Dynamics of Politics in Pakistan 100
  Grand Total 500 500

Paper  1 :: Western Political Thought :

This course is designed to provide a sound grounding in evolution of Western Political Thought from Greek to the modern period, with a focus on the political thought of most representative thinkers of major political movements.

1. Nature of Greek Political Thought : Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
2. Conflict between Church & State, The conciliary theory of Church Government
3. Political thought of Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, Montesqieu,Hume, and Burke
4. Utilitarians: Bentham, J.S. Mill
5. Kant, Hegel, and T.H. Green
6. Rise of Democratic Socialism
7. Communism: Karl Marx, Development of Communism after Marx, Lenin, Stalin,Mao-Tse-Tung.

Recommended Books
1, Earnest, Barker. (1962). Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle. New York.
2. George, H. Saleive & Thomas L. Thorson. (1973) A History of Political Theory.Dryden, Press Hinsdale, Illinois.
3. Harold Laski. (1920). Political Thoughts in England from Locke to Bentham. Williams and Norgate, London.
4. Herrie H. Grec, Chinese. (1953). Thought from Confucius to Mao Tse Tung.University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (Relevant chapters).
5. Judd, Harmon. (1964). Political Thought from Plato to the Present. McGraw Hill,New York.
6. Otto Grieke. (1913). Political Theories of the Middle Ages: Cambridge University Press. (also available in a recent paper back edition).
7. William A. Dunning. (1957) History of Political Theories. Macmillan, New York.
8. William Ebenstein. (1957). Political Thought in Perspective. McGraw Hill, New York. 9. William Ebenstein. (1960). Modern Political Thought: The Great issues. Holt,Rinchart and Winston, New York.

Paper 2  Muslim Political Thought

The major purpose of this course is to acquaint the students with the major political concepts of Islam. The structural and functional aspects of Islamic polity, the writings of some prominent Muslim thinkers and with the prospects related to the application of Islamic principles in modern times.

1. Political concepts of Islam a. Islamic concept of state: Islamic State — Islam and Islamic Polity: Nature of Islamic sphere of Theocracy-Democratic ideals b. Concept of Sovereignty and its implication c. Islamic Law, its sources, Place of ljtihad in Islamic Law, Constitutional Law, Personal Law, Muslim International Law and characteristics. d. Concept of Miliat and positions of religious-minorities in Islamic State. e. Concept of Liberty and Fundamental Human Rights in Islam. f. Principles of Social and economic justice in Islam. A comprehensive view with reference to modern secular ideologies.

2. Traditional Institutions, their organizational and procedural form in a modern environment. Note: These aspects are to be discussed with reference to different view points regarding Islamic Provisions expressed at different stages of constitution making in Pakistan. a) Khilafat — Theory and Practice, Principles underlying the institution,grounds of political obligations - form of government in modern Islamic state. b) As Shura — its significance - views regarding its form:organizational and procedural. 3. Thinkers: a) Al-Farabi b) Al Mawardi c) Al Ghazali d) Ibn Khaldoon e) Shah Wali Ullah f) lqbal

Recommended Books

1. Af-Farabi.(1985). Ahl-al Madina-al-Fadila. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
2. Ahmad Ghazali. (2000). The Socio-Political Thought of Shah Waliullah. International Institute, Islamabad.
3. Allama M. lqbal. (1965). Reconstruction of Religious thought in Islam. Sh. M. Ashraf Publishers, 7-Aibak Road, Lahore.
4. Ameer Ali. (1992). Spirit of Islam. Progressive Books Lahore, Pakistan.
5. Dr. M. Hameed Ullah. (1935). Muslim Conduct of State. Sh. M. Ashraf Publishers, 7-Aibak Road, Lahore
6. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar. (2008). Islami Siyasi Afkar, Fikrr-o-Amasl ke Tanazar Main. Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore.
7. Hussaini, S.A.Q. (1958). The Constitution of Arab Empire. Sh. M. Ashraf Publication, Lahore.
8. Hussaini. (1970). Arab Administration. Sh. M. Ashraf Publication, Lahore.
9. Ibn Khaldun. (1967). The Maqqadimah, trans. by Rosenthal Vol. 1 Routledg Press, New York.
10. lmran Ahsan Khan Niazi.(1944). Theories of Islamic Law. International Institute, Islamabad.
11. Mohsin Mehdi. (2002). Al-Farabi and the Foundation of Islamic Political Philosophy.Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan.
12. Molana Muhammad Hanif Nadvi. (1944). Talimat-e-Ghazali. Idara-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, Lahore.
13. Molana Saad Khan Yousafi. (1403 A.H.). Muqadama lbn-e-Khaldun. Noor Muhammad, Karkhana Tajarat Kutab, Aram Bagh, Karachi.
14. Muhammad Asad. (1961). The Principles of State and Government in Islam. University of California, USA.
15. Muhammad Umar-Ud-Din (Umaruddin).(2003). The Ethical Philosophy of Al-Ghazali.A. S. Noordeen P.O. Box 42 - Gombak, 53800 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
16. P.U. Lahore, International Islamic. Colloquium. (1957-58).
17. Perveen Shaukat Ali. (1970). The Political Philosophy of lqbal. United Publishers,Lahore.
18. Rashid Ahmad. (1961). Muslim Political Thoughts. Idara-e-Saqafat Islamia, Club Road, Lahore.
19. Rosenthaul. (1962). Political Thought in Medieval Islam. Cambridge University Press. UK.
20. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. (1980). Islamic Law and Constitution. Islami Academy,Lahore, Pakistan.
21. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. (1981). Islamic State. Islamic Publication Ltd. Shah Alam Market, Lahore.
22. Sherwani. H.K. (1968). Studies in Early Muslim Political Thought and Admin. Sh. M.Ashraf Publication, Lahore.
23. T.W. Arnold. (1965). The Caliphate. Oxford University Press, Lahore, Pakistan.

Paper 3 Comparative and Developmental Politics

The purpose of the course is to acquaint the students with the major concepts and themes/problems of Comparative Politics. It is also intended to make them aware of the nature and problems of political development.
Part - I
1. Approaches to comparative politics a. Traditional approach: Its characteristics and critique b. Behavioral approach and its characteristics
2. The political system basic concepts, characteristics, functions, with reference to the work of David Easton, Almond and Coleman; and its critique. Political Culture: its meaning, elements, Kinds, relevance and importance to the study of politics system.
1. Political Development
a. Meanings
b. Characteristics and
c. Indications of political development/modernization
2. Socio-political change a. Major theories and their functional implications
3. Leadership a. Political leadership, nature and problems — political parties b. Bureaucratic and Military leadership
4. Major issues and problems of political developments
a. National identity and integration
b. Legitimacy and participation
c. State-building d. Anomic political activity and violence
Readings •
Alasadir F. MacBean and V. N. Balasubra- Manyam. (1966), Meeting the third world challenge. Macmillan Press for the Trade Policy Research Centre, London.
• Almond G.A. and Powell, G.B. (1966). Comparative Politics,
a Development Approach. Little Brown, Boston. • Almond G.A. and Verba, S. (1963).
The civil culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. • Apter D.E. (1965).
The Politics of modernization. Chicago University Press. • C.H. Dood. (1972). Political Development. Macmillan, London. • Charles W. Anderson, Fred R. von der Mehden and Crawford Young. (1967). Issues of Political Development. Englewood. Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, London. • Colin Leys. (1969). Politics and Change in Developing Countries. Cambridge University Press. • Dr. Muhammad Sarwar. (2008). Comparative and Development Politics. Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore. • Finkled, J. L. and Gable, R.W. (1966). Political Development and social change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. • Fred von der Mehden. (1970). Politics of the Developing Nations. Prentice-Hall, Inc. • Leonard Binder and others, (1971) Crises and sequences in Political Development. Princeton University Press. • M.A. Baqai. (1975). Social Order in Pakistani Society. Royal Book Company,Karachi. • Macridis, Roy C. (1972). Comparative Politics. The Dorsey Press. • Monte Palmer and William Thompson. (1978). The Comparative Analysis of Politics.F. E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., New York • Robert E. Gamer. (1982). The Developing Nations—A Comparative Perspective. William C Brown Publishers, England. • Samuel P. Huntington. (1968). Political order in changing societies. Yale University Press. • Shils, E.A. (1960). Political Development in the New States. Mouton and Co. The Hague. • Von Der Mehdon, F.R. (1964). The Politics of the developing nations. Prentice Hall. • Wiseman H.V. (1966). Political System: Some Sociological Approaches. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Recommended Books
1. Easton, D. (1953). The Political System. Altered, A. Knop, New York
2. Henry Bernstein. (1973). Underdevelopment and Development: Third World Today.Penguin Books, Limited, London.
3. Michael Rush and Phillip Althoff. (1972). An introduction to Political sociology Western.MacMillan Publishing Company.
4. Morton, R. Davies. (1971). Models of Political Systems. Pall Mall Press ltd.
5. Pye Lucian W. (1965). Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
6. Pye, Lucian, W. (1966). Aspects of Political Development. Little Brown and Co.
7. Young, Oran, R. (1968). Systems of Political Science. Prentice Hall Inc.

Paper — IV International Relations
It is to be an introductory course aimed at introducing students to basic concepts and approaches and create among them an appreciation of environment and problems of international relations.
1. Development of International Relations as a separate discipline. Scope and Problems of study of International Relations, Idealist, Realist schools.
2. Modern Sovereign State system, its evolution, characteristics and crisis of the sovereign state.
3. Contemporary Environment of International Relations and its characteristics
4. Approach-Wes-theories and concepts to the study of international relations. a. Systems approach.
b. Decision making.
c. Communication and integration.
d. Conflict and conflict resolution etc.
e. Powers, elements of power, balance of power, terror and deterrence.
f. Inter-alignment, non-alignment, neutralism and nationalism.
g. Collective Security, Disarmament and Arms Control.
5. Diplomacy, negotiations, channels, methods and styles.
6. Foreign policy making;
a. Determinants of foreign policy.
b. National interest motives, intension, ideologies, perception and images.
7. International Relations and International Law and Morality, nature of international law, its relevance to and impact on international relations.
8. International organizations its nature and impact on international relations
• Chalres 0, Lerche, Jr. and Abdul A. Said. (1963). Concepts of International Politics. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall Inc.
• K.J. Holsti. (1977). International Politics, A Frame work for Analysis. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall, Inc.
• William C. Olson, Fred A. Sonderman and Davis S. Macllallan. (1977). The Theory and Practice of International Relations. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall, Inc.
• William D. Caplin. (1974). Introduction to International Politics, a Theoretical overview. Round McNally College Publishing Co., Chicago.

Recommended Books
1. Carlton, J.H. Hayes. (1960). Nationalism, a religion. Macmillan, New York.
2. Charles Reynolds. (1975). Theory and explanation in International Politics, Martin Robertson and Co. Ltd, London.
3. F. Charles lkle. (1968). How Nations Negotiate. Frederick A. Praeger.
4. Hans. J. Morgenthau. (1973). Politics among nations. Alfred A. Knof, New York.
5. Inis L.Claude.(1962). Power and International Relations. Random House, New York. 6. James E. Dougherty and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. (1971). Contending Theories of International Relations. J.B. Lippincott. Co, Philadelphia.
7. James N. Rosenau. (1969). International Politics and Foreign Policy, A reader in Research and theory. The free Press of Glencoe, New York.
8. Joseph Frankle. (1973). Contemporary International Theory and Behavior of States. Oxford University Press, London.
9. Karl W. Deutsch. (1977). The Analysis of International Relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall Inc.
10. Morton A. Kaplan. (1964). System and Process in International Politics. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York.
11. Norman D. Oalmer and Howard C. Perkins. (1969). International Relations, The world community in Transition. Houghton Miffin Co., New York.
12. Paul Seabury. (1985). Balance of Power. Chanlder Pub. Co., San Francisco.
13. Stanley H. Hauffmann. (1960). Contemporary theory in International Relations. Englewood Cliff, N.J. Prentice Hall.
14. Taylor, Trevor. (1978). Approaches and theory in International Relations. Longman, London.
15. William D. Coplin and Charles, W. Kegely Jr. (1975). Analyzing International Relations, a multi method introduction. Preager Publishers, Inc. New York.

Paper - V Ideology and Dynamics of Politics in Pakistan
1. Ideological Moorings a. Evolution and Genesis of Two Nation Theory b. Significance of Pakistan Ideology for Political Process, State and Nation building and governmental politics
2. Constitution Making A review of history of constitution making with special emphasis on major constitutional problems i.e., !slam and constitution making nature of federation, representation of provinces in the central legislature, unicameralism or bicameralism, the national language issue, and separate or joint electorate.
3. A comparative study of the major features of the 1956, 1962 and 1973 constitutions. 4. A critical appraisal of the working of parliamentary system (1947-58, 1973-77) and Presidential system (1962-69).
5. Military Role of the military in the politics of Pakistan. Major causes of the imposition of Martial Law in 1958, 1969, 1977.
6. Bureaucracy a. The heritage and its reorganization after independence b. Role of Bureaucracy in Politics
7. Political Parties a. Major features of the party system in Pakistan b. Review of the programs and performance of the major political parties 8. Pressure groups
a. Ulema and Meshaikh
b. Students
c. Trade Unions
d. Other professional and trade organization
9. National Integration
a. Salient issues of national integration
b. The East Pakistan crisis
c. Nature and problem of centre province relations since 1972
10. Political Participation
a. Representation and Elections
b. Mass Political Movements 1968-69, 1977.
c. Local Self Government
11. Judiciary Its role in constitutional development

Required Books
1. Asif Hussain. (1979). Elite Politics in an Ideological State, The case of Pakistan.Dawson Publications. London.
2. G.W. Chaudhry. (1963). Constitutional Development in Pakistan. Royal Books Company, Karachi. Pakistan.
3. H.F. Goodnow. (1964). The Civil Services of Pakistan. Yale University Press.London.
4. Hassan Askari Rizvi. (1974). The Military and Politics in Pakistan. Progressive Press,Lahore. Pakistan.
5. Herbert Feldman. (1972). Pakistan from crisis to crisis. Oxford University Press, New York.
6. Kahlid Bin Sayeed. (1967). The Political System of Pakistan. National Book Service,Lahore. Pakistan.
7. Keith Callard. (1975). Pakistan, A political study. George Allen Press, Sydney.
8. Lawrence Ziring. (1971). The Ayub Khan Era. Syracuse University U.K.
9. Leonard Binder. (1961). Religion and Politics in Pakistan. Henery Holt Company New York, USA.
10. Mushtaq Ahmad. (1970). Government and Politics in Pakistan. Royal Book Company, Karachi.
11. Robert Laporte. (1975). Power and Privilege, Influences and Decision making in Pakistan. University of California Press, Berkeley.
12. Sharif ul Mujahid. (2001). Ideology of Pakistan. Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad.
13. Weeler Richard S. (1970). The Politics of Pakistan, A Constitutional Quest. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, New York. Readings
• Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1956, 1962, 1973.
• Donald E. Smith. (ed). (1966). South Asian Politics and Religion. Princeton University Press, USA. • Dr. Muhammad Sarwar, Parliamentary Democracy in Pakistan, (Urdu).
• Afzal Muqeem Khan. (1973). Pakistan's crisis in Leadership. National Books, Karachi.
• G.W. Chaudhry. (1963). Democracy in Pakistan. University of British Colombia, British Colombia.
• Herbet Feldman.(1967). Revolution in Pakistan. Oxford University Press, USA.
• Howard Wriggins. (ed). (1975). Pakistan in Transition. University of Islamabad Press, Islamabad.
• Kalim Siddiqi. (1972). Crisis, conflict and war in Pakistan. Collier Macmillan, London, UK.
• Khalid Bin Sayeed. (1980). Politics in Pakistan, The Nature and Direction of Changes. Preager Publishers New York, USA.
• Khalid Mahmood.(1958). Trade Unions in Pakistan. Political Science Deptt., P.U. Lahore.
• Munir Report. (1954). West Pakistan Government. Punjab Disturbances of 1953 Lahore.
• Mushtaq Ahmad.(1971). Politics without Social change. Space Publishers, Karachi.
• Report of the Court of Inquiry in Punjab disturbances.
• Rounaq Jahan.(1972). Pakistan, Failure in National integration. Columbia University Press, New York.
• Lawrence Ziring, Ralph Braibanti, W. Howard Wriggins (ed). (1977). Pakistan the Long View. Center for Commonwealth and Comparative Studies, Duke University Press.

M.A. (Final) Examination in Political Science

Students are advised to consult research journals and newspapers for latest development in the politics of Pakistan University of the Punjab The following syllabi and courses of reading for M.A. (Final) Examination in Political Science of 1986-92-08 is hereby notified
Compulsory Papers
Paper VI Comparative Political Systems
Paper VII Pakistan Movement Any three of the following options
Paper VIII The Muslim World - Dynamics of Issues
Paper IX External Relations of Pakistan
Paper X Foreign Policies of Major Powers USA, USSR, China, France and Britain
Paper XI International Law
Paper XII International Organizations
Paper XIII Political Sociology
Paper XIV Local Self Government in Pakistan
Paper XV Public Administration
Paper XVI Defence and Strategic Studies
Paper XVII Modern Political Thought - Western
Paper XVIII Modern Political thought — Muslim
Paper XIX Research Methodology
Paper XX Political system of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal
Paper XXI Political System of Iran, Iraq and Egypt
Paper XXII Political System of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria
Paper XXIII Political Systems of Sweden, Norway and Denmark
Paper XXIV Political system of France, Germany, and Switzerland.
Paper XXV Public Policy
Paper XXVI Political Geography
Paper XXVII Governance and Development
Candidates will be allowed to take up thesis of 200 marks on a subject approved by the Board of Studies in lieu of any two optional papers.
Paper VI: Comparative Political System: This course is in continuation of "Theory of Comparative and Developmental Politics, studied in M.A. Previous. The focus is to be on the origin, development and operation of the following Political Systems:--
1. Political Systems of U.K. and U.S.A. :
The Focus will be on the following aspects:
(a) Political heritage.
(b) Constitutional and political growth.
(c) Constitutional and political framework; pattern of authority and power.
(d) Decision making process.
(e) Party politics and its trends.
(f) Pressure politics and the modes of political action.
2. Peoples Republic of China:
(a) Political and cultural heritage.
(b) Establishment of the Peoples Republic.
(c) Political and constitutional development after 1949.
(d) Socio-economic development of Cultural Revolution Commune Systems.
(e) The Communist Party: Ideology, organizations, and role.
Political Systems of   Turkey:
(a) Political conditions in early 20th century.
(b) Nationalist Movement-Establishment of the Republic.
(c) Constitutional, Political and administrative changes under Kamal Ata Turk.
(d) Constitutional and Political development after Kamal Ata Turk, Working of Parliamentary system Parties and Pressure Groups.
(e) Military and Politics in Turkey.
1. Almond, Gabriel. (1988). Comparative Politics Today, A world View. Pearson Scott Foresman.
2. Beer, Samuel H. 1969). British Politics in the Collectivist Age. Random House, New York.
3. Bianco, Lucien. (1971). Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-49. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
4. Brezinshi, Zhigiiew and Samuel Huntington P. (1964). Political Power, U.S.A., U.S.S.R. Viking, New York.
5. Butler Avid E. and Donald E. Stokes. (1969). Political Change in Britain. St. Martin's, New York.
6. Butt, Ronald. (1969). The Power of Parliament. Constable, London.
7. Dose, Richard. (1965). Politics of England. Faber & Faber, England. U.K.
8. Houn, Franhulin, A. (1973). Chinese Communism. Englewood Cliffs.
9. Kahin, George McTurnan. (1963). Major Government of Asia. Cornell University Press, New York. 12
10. Lewis, John Wilson, (1970). Major Doctrines of Communist China. Contemporary China Institute Publications. 11. Mackintosh, John P. (1969). The British Cabinet. Methuen, London.
12. Macridis, Roy C. and Robert E. Ward.(1972). Modern Political System of Europe. Prentice Hall, New York.
13. McKenize, R.T. (1964). British Political Parties. Preager, New York.
14. Menon, V.P. (1957). The Transfer of Power in India. Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey.
15. Palmer, John P. (1964).Government and Parliament in Britain. Haward Society, London.
16. Punnett, R.M. (1987). British Government and Politics. Gower Publishing Ltd. U.K. 5th Revised edition.
17. Pye, Lucian W. (1992). The Spirit of Chinese Politics. Harvard University Press.
18. Rose, Richar. (1992). Studies in British Politics. St. Martin's Press, New York.
19. Snow Edgar. (1968). Red Star Over China. Grove Press, New York.
20. Touensend, James, R. (1974). Politics in China. Little Brown, Boston.

Paper VII: Pakistan Movement:
The purpose of this paper is to make an in depth study of the ideological, social, cultural and economic bases of Muslim struggle for freedom in the subcontinent, leading to the establishment of Pakistan.
1. Significant events and ideological movements bearing upon the development of Muslim nationalism; beginning of the Indian political moment and the Indian National Congress;
The Aligarh Movement- its phases and contribution; Muslim response to Hindu religiopolitical and cultural movements; partition of Bengal;
Simla Deputation;
Establishment of the Muslim League;
Circumstances leading to the cooperation between the Muslim League and the Congress;
The Luchnow Pact;
Khilafat Movement;
Politics in the 1920's;
Nehru Report;
Jinnah's fourteen points;
Communal Award, Congress Rule in the provinces under the Government of India Act-1935;
Lahore Resolution;
Cripps proposals;
Cabinet Mission Plan.
2. Constitutional Reforms; Indian Councils Acts, 1861, 1892 and 1909. Government of India Acts 1919, 1933 and 1935;
The Indian Independence Act 1947.
3. ideological foundations of the two nation theory with special reference to the contribution of Sir Syed, lqbal and Quaid-i-Azam, Secular versus Muslim Nationalism:-
(a) Pro-Congress Ulema.
(b) Pro-Muslim League Ulema.
(c) Maulana Maududi.
4. (a) An appraisal of the ideas and role of the following leaders and organizations in the Mulsim Political Movement; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan; Syed Amir Ali; Mohsin ul Mulk: Viqar ul Mulk; Maulana Muhammad Ali; Maulana Zafar All Khan.
(b) Study of Quaid-i-Azam as a Legislator, Poltician, negotiator and mass leader.
(c) Anjaman-i- Himayat-i- Islam; Muslim Students Federation.
(d) Women's role, in the struggle for Pakistan.
13 Recommended Books:
1. Abdul Hamid. (1967). Muslim Separation in India. Oxford University Press, Karachi.
2. Abu Kalam Azad. (1961). India Wins Freedom. Orient Longman, Calcutta.
3. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, (1967). The Emergence of Pakistan. Columbia University USA.
4. I.H. Qureshi. (ed). (1967). A Short History of Pakistan. University of Karachi.
5. I.H. Qureshi. (1969). Struggle for Pakistan. University of Karachi.
6. Jamil ul Din Ahmad. (1964). Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah. Shaikh Mohammad Ashraf Publishers, Lahore. 7. Khlid B. Sayyed (1960), Pakistan: The Formative Phase. Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi.
8. Matlub ul-Hasan Sayyid. (1953). Muhammad Ali Jinnah; A Political Study. Shaikh Mohammad Ashraf Publishers, Lahore.
9. Richard Symonds. (1950). The Making of Pakistan. Faber & Faber, London.
10. S.M. lkram. (1970). Modern Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan. Sh.M. Ashraf Publishers Lahore.
11. Syed Hasan Riaz. (1977). The Politics of lqbal. Islamic Book Service, Lahore.
12. Waheed uz Zaman. (1978). Towards Pakistan. Publishers United Pvt. Ltd., Lahore.
Paper VIII: The Muslim World - Dynamics and Issues:
The purpose of the Course is to create among students an understanding of the nature of challenges, internal and external to the Muslim World and its responses to the challenges. It is to be studied within the historical perspective. A detailed study of the current socio-economic and political environment and dynamics of the Muslim World should also be made. 1. Historical Perspective: A brief survey of the state of the Muslim World in the 19th and early 20th century: Ottoman Empire: Indian Empire; North Africa, Indonesia etc. Muslim World and Czarist Russia: West and the Muslim World.
II. (a) European Imperialism and Colonialism. Structure of Imperialism; British, French, Dutch and Russian Imperialism.
III. Consequences of Imperialism; Socio-Economic and cultural consequences; Mode of exploitation—its extent and nature; Administrative, Commercial, Educational and Cultural Policies.
IV. (a) Nationalism in the Muslim World: Regional and Territorial Nationalist movements in Arab World, Turkey, Afghanistan, India, Indonesia. Nationalists and other Parties.
(b) Strategies of Independence movements in the Muslim World.
(c) Problems of Political and constitutional development.
V. Contemporary Problems and Issues: Muslims World and the New Economic Order.
14 VI. (a) Regional Organizations in the Muslim World: Organization of Islamic Conference. Arab League, RCD, OPEC.
(b) Muslim Minorities in India, Russia, China and Philippines.
Recommended Books:
1. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. (1979). A History of revivalist Movements in_ Islam. Islam' Publications, Lahore, Pakistan.
2. Govt. of Pakistan. (1963). Economic Survey of the Muslim Countries. Lahore Pakistan
3. M. Rashid Feroze. (1976). Islam and Secularism in Post-Kemalist Turkey. Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad. 4. A.K. Brohi. (1975). Islam in the Modern World. Allied Publisher, Lahore.
5. C.W. Smith. (1943). Modern Islam in India. Mirza Books, Lahore.
6. Al-Biruni. (1943). Modern Movements in the World of Islam. Gyula Germanus. Note: All the above books have been published by Sh. Mubarik Ali, Lahore.
7. Albert Muirani. (1962). Arab thought in the Liberal Age. Oxford University Press.
8. (1989). Encyclopedia of Islam, Relevant Parts. Tien Wah Press, Singapore.
9. C. H. Janson. (1979). Militant Islam. Harter and Row Cambridge, USA.
10. A.R. Gibbs. (2000). Modern Trends in Islam. Icon Group International Inc. America.
11. (1980). Muslim Communities in Non-Muslim State. Islamic Council of Europe.
12. Hafeez Malik. (1963). Nationalism in India and Pakistan. 13. Dr. Shaukat Ali. (1976). Pan Movements in the Third World.
14. Kamal M. Karpat. (1982). Political and Social Thought in the contemporary Middle East.
15. Douglass Pratt. (1988). The Challenge of Islam, Islamic Council of Europe. Ashgate Publishing, England.
16. I.H. Qureshi. (1977). The Muslim Community of the Subcontinent. Ma'araf University of Michigan.
17. (1979). The Muslim World and the future economic order. Islamic Council of Europe.
Paper IX: External Relations of Pakistan:
The main purpose of this paper is to study in detail Pakistan's relations with her neighbors, the Muslim world and the Big Powers. It also aims at discussing the determinants and constraints of foreign-policy making in Pakistan.
(a) Foreign Policy Setting: Geopolitical and Geo strategic situation: Determinants and objectives of Foreign policy.
(b) Pakistan and the Muslim World: Pakistan's relations with the Muslim World; Areas of Common Interest; Islamic Solidarity.
(C) Relations with Great Powers:
1. Strategic and Ideological Interests of Pakistan.
2. Relations with Western Powers.
3. Relations with Communist Powers.
(d) Relations with India:
1. Two-Nations Theory.
2. Major Disputes with India.
3. Communal Trends in India and their impact on India-Pakistan Relations.
4. Attempts at Normalization of Relations. 15
(e) Policy of Co-existence with India and Afghanistan:
(f) Relations with the Third World:
1. Non-Alignment.
2. Asian Solidarity.
(g) Pakistan and the United Nations:
1. Ahmad Aziz. (1967). Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857-64. Oxford University Press.
2. Ahmad Mushtaq. (1955). The United Nations and Pakistan. Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, Karachi.
3. Brands, William, J. (1957). India, Pakistan and Great Powers. Institute of Pacific Relations, New York.
4. Brecher, Michael. (1957). India's Foreign Policy: Interpretation. Institute of Pacific Relations, New York.
5. Burks, S.M. (1973). Pakistan's Foreign Policy: A Historical Analysis. Oxford University Press, London.
6. Hosan, K. Sarwar. (1960). Pakistan and the United Nations. Manhatten, New York.
7. Jisaom, Arif. (1966). Pakistan: Its Ideology and Foreign Policy. Frank Cass, London.
8. S.M. Burke. (1975). Mainsprings of India and Pakistan Foreign Policies. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.
9. Palmer, Norman D. (1966). South Asia and the United States Policy. Houghton Muffin Press, Boston.
10. Park, Richard L. and I Tinker, eds. (1969). Leadership and Political Institution in India. Princeton University Press.
11. Qureshi, Dr. M. Aslam. (1976). Anglo-Pakistan Relations. Research Society of Pakistan, Lahore.
12. Syed Anwar Hussain & Rais, Rasul Buksh. ( 1974). China and Pakistan: A Political Analysis of Mutual Relations. Oxford University Press, USA.
13. Salik, Siddiq. (1977). Witness to Surrender. Oxford University Press, USA.
14. Shoukat Ali. (1976). Pan-Movements in the Third World. Allied Publisher, New Delhi.
15. Siddiqi, Aslam. (1960). Pakistan Seeks Security. Longman, Karachi.
16. Smith, Donal Eugene. (1966). South Asian Politics and Religion. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
17. Stein Arthur B. (1969). India and the Soviet Union, the Nehru Era. Chicago University Press
18. Syed Anwar H. (1974). China and Pakistan: Diplomacy of an entente cordiale. Oxford University Press, USA. Paper X: Foreign Policies of Major Powers
1. Nature of Foreign Policy and its determinants: Ideological Economic, Military Political and Psychological.
2. Ideological, Economic and Strategic basis of the foreign policies of Major Powers.
3. Decline of colonialism and the emergence of U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. as superpowers after World War II. 16
4. Soviet philosophy of world revolution and the U.S. Policy of containment.
5. Cold War & Détente. 6. Sino-Soviet Relations and Sino-American Relations.
7. The Major Powers and South Asia. 8. The Major Powers and Middle East.
9. Oil Politics and the Major Powers. 10. Major Powers and the Non-Aligned Movement.
1. Comphell, John C. (1960). Defence of the Middle East; Problems of American Policy. Frederick A. Praeger, New York.
2. Coplin, William D. (1974). Introduction to International Politics. Rand McNally College Pub. Co., Chicago.
3. Coplin, William D. and Charles W. Kegley. (1975). Analyzing International Relations. Praeger Publishers, New York.
4. David I. Dallin. (1961). Soviet Foreign Policy After Stalin. Lippincot Company, New York.
5. G.H. Hudson. (1963). The Sino-Soviet Dispute. Frederick, New York.
6. Hartman, Frederick H. (1967). The Relations of Nations. Macmillan, New York.
7. James, Rosenau N. (1969). International Politics and Foreign Policy. The Free Press, New York.
8. K.C. Chen, (1979). China and the Three Worlds. St. Martin's Press, New York.
9. Kissinger, Henry A. (1969). American Foreign Policy. W.W. Northon, and Co., New York.
10. Kurt. (1974). The Soviet Impact on World Politics. Hawthorn Book, New York.
11. Paul Hammond. (1975). Cold War and Détente. Harcourt Publication, New York.
12. R.C. Macridies. (1979). Foreign Policy and World Politics. Prentice Hall USA
13. Robert Blum. (1962). The U.S. and China in World Affairs. McGill University Press.
14. Robin Edmonds. (1975). Soviet Foreign Policy 1962773. Oxford University Press, USA.
15. Spanier, John W. (1969). American Foreign Policy since World War-II. Frederick A. Praeger, New York.
16. Spanier John. (1977). Games Nations Play. Preager Publishers, New York.
17. Walter Laquer. (1972). The Struggle for the Middle East. Penguin Books.

Paper XI: International Law:
The Purpose of this paper is to study the major aspects of public international law.
1. Introduction, Definition, Nature and Scope of International Law.
2. Origin, Structure and Sources of International Law including, specially, Methods of determining the Rules of International Law; International Law and Municipal Law; Nature of Muslim International Law.
3. Subject of International Law: Requisites for statehood; individuals in relation to international Law; Recognition of States Government; Various kinds of Recognition and its methods; Legal consequences of Recognition & Non-recognition; State succession and its consequences; Intervention, Kinds and grounds of intervention; Methods of Acquisition and losing state territory; Law of Sea, recent developments with respect to straits, international waterways; High Sea and Deep Sea. 17 L7'
4. Territory of State: Jurisdiction on the High Seas; Over National Vessels; Over-Foreign Vessels in Territorial Waters; Fisheries in the Open Sea; Contigeous Zone; Continental Shelf: and Hijacking in International Law; Aerial Jurisdiction and Jurisdiction over outer space; Extratoriality; Rights & Immunities of States and of state Instrumentalities in Courts of other States.
5. Nationality: Conflict of Nationality Laws; Collective Naturalization; Dual Nationality; Modes of Acquiring and Losing nationality; Extradition; Political Asylum.
6. Diplomatic Relations: Its categories; Reception & Recall of Diplomatic Agents; Diplomatic Immunities; Immunities of International Organization, Termination of Diplomatic Relations; International Torts and Damages. 7. Treaties: Nature and its kinds, Ratification and Conclusion of Treaties; Interpretation of Treaties; Effects of War on Treaties; Treaties Inconsistent under the U.N. Charter Provision.
8. International Disputes: Nature and settlement of International Disputes.
9. Laws of War: Enemy Charter; insurgency and Belligerency; Non-Amicable Measures short of war including intervention etc. Regulations of the conduct of Gentilities; Rules relating to POWs; Law of Military Occupation, Legal Effects of War; Blockade; Contraband; The right of Visit and Research; Neutrality; Rights and Duties of Neutrals.
10. Codification of International Law

Books Recommended:
1. B.V.A. Roling. (1960). International Law in an expanded World. Djambatan, Amsterdam.
2. C.G. Colombs. (1962). The International Law of the Sea. Longmans.
3. Chas.G. Fenwick. (1948). International Law. Appleton Century, New York.
4. C.W. Jenks. (1964). The Prospects for International adjudication. Stevens & Sons, London.
5. Charles C. Fenwick. (1965). International Laws. Appleton, Century, Crafts. New York.
6. D. Oppenhelm. (1974). International Law. Longmans. U.K.
7. F.C. Jessup. (2009). A Modern Law of Nations. Macmillan, New York.
8. G. Schwarzenberger. (1949). A Manual of International Law. Stevens, London.
9. G.C. Chesbire. (1961). Private International Law. Oxford University Press. New York, USA.
10. H.W. Briggs. (1955). The Law of Nations. Appleton, New York. 18 612
11. Hans Kelsen. (1952). Principles of International Law. Rinehart & Company, inc. New York.
12. Helen Dwight Reid. (1932). International Servitudes in Law and Practice. University of Chicago Press.
13. J. Stones. (1954). Legal Controls of International Conflict. Stevens, London.
14. J.G. Starke. (1963). An Introduction to International Law. Butterworth's, London.
15. J.L. Brierly. (1981). The Law of Nations. Oxford University Press.
16. Keplan and Katzenback. (1961). The Political Foundations of International Law. John Willey, New York.
17. Lauterpacht Hersch. (1948). Recognition in International Law. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
18. Majid Khaduri. (1966). The Islamic Law of Nations. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
19. MacNair. (1960). The Law of Treaties. Oxford University Press, London.
20. Pitt Cobbett. (1907). Cases on International Law. Sweet & Maxwell Ltd. London.
21. Oscar Svarlien. (1955). An Introduction to the Law of Nation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
22. Q. Wright. (1963). International Law; A contemporary Balance Sheet. Random House, USA.
23. Richard A. Falk and S.H. Mendivitz. (1966). The Strategy of World Order. World Law Fund, New York.
24. S. Hershey. (1927), The Essentials of International Public Law and Org. Macmillan New York.
25. Sir Henry Maine. (2005). International Law. Adamant Media Corporation.
26. W. Friedman. (1964). Law in a changing society. Pelican Books.
27. W. Lauterpacht. (1958). The Development of International Law through the International Court of Justice. Preager, New York.
28. W.W. Bishop. (1962). International Law; Cases and Materials. Little Brown, New York.
29. Majid Khadduri. (1955). War and Peace is the Law of Islam. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
Paper XII: International Organization:
The purpose of this course will be to examine the nature, structure and functioning of the principal public organizations that are international in their purpose and composition. The course will deal especially, although not exclusively, with the United Nations system.
1. Nature: Conflict management and promotion of cooperation.
2. Setting: Sovereignty; Equality; Power Politics, Nationalism.
3. Historical and intellectual background of International Organization in the pre- world War-I Period.
4. League of Nations; Origin, Structure and functions.
5. United Nations: Origin Structure and functions.
6. Collective security under the League of Nations and the United Nations.
7. Peace-making and peace-keeping by the International Organizations with special reference to Kashmir, Korea, Palestine, Congo, and Cyprus.
8. Super Powers and United Nations.
9. East-West and North-South tussle in the United Nations.
10. Economic development and Social Welfare through the United Nations.
11. Regulation of armaments; Conventional and Nuclear. 19 (ID
12. Internationalism and regionalism: NATO WARSA Pact, Arab League, ASEAN, 01C, Non-Aligned Movement, OAU, EEC.
13. Future of International Organizations. Required Readings:
1. J. Stoessinger. (1970). The Superpowers and the United Nations. Random House. New York.
2. H.G. Nicholas.(1975). The United Nations as a Political institution. Oxford University Press. USA.
3. Jack Plano and Robert Riggs.(1967). Forging World Order. Macmillan. Illionise
4. James Barros. (1972). The United Nations: past, Present and Future. New York: Free Press.
5. Lynn Miller. (1972). Organizing making. Holbrook Press, University of California.
6. Maurice Waters. (1967). The United Nations. Macmillan Press, London.
7. Ruthch C. Lawson. (1962). International Regional Organizations. Faber & Faber U.K.
8. S. S. Goodspeed. (1967). The Nature and Functions of International Organizations. Oxford University Press. USA.
9. Sydney Bailey. (1966). The General Assembly of United Nations. World Law Fund.
10. Thomas Hovet Jr. (1960). Bloc Politics in the United Nations. Harvard University Press, New York.

Recommended Books:
1. Brown, Lester R. (1972). World without Borders. Yintage Books.
2. D.C. Coyle.(1955). The United Nations and How its works. United Nations, Washington.
3. Jacob, Philip E. and An Exine L. Atherton.(1965). The Dynamics of International Organization. Dorsey Press.
4. K. Sarwar Hassan. (1960). Pakistan and the United Nations. Manhattan Publishing Company New York.
5. Keohane, Robbert 0. and Joseph S. Mye, Jr. Eds. (1972). Transnational Relations and World Politics. Harvard University Press, New York.
6. M.I. ec. (1965). The United Nations and World Realities. Progressive Press.
7. Miller, Lynn H. Organizing Mankind: An analysis of contemporary International Organization.
8. Robert Macdonald. (1965). The League of Arab States. Princeton University Press.
9. Ruth B. Russell. (1965). United Nations Experience with Military Forces-Political and Legal Aspects. Brooking Institutions.
10. Sydney D. Bailey. (1962). The Secretariat of the United Nations. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
11: Political Sociology:
The course has been designed to study the various stands of social and political behavior constituting political sociology. An attempt has been made to emphasize the importance of sociology in the study of political process.
1. Meanings and scope of political sociology.
2. The study of social and political behavior.
3. Social classification-social stratification: status power, symbols.
4. Political Socialization, role of family, tribe, race, education and religion.
5. Political communication: Information media, press, modes of political communication and control.
6. Rural urban cultural patterns: Socio-political sociology.
7. Public opinion: nature, formation, role, measurement of public opinion.
8. Individual and collective political behavior; Determinant-modes, including anomie political behavior.

Books Recommended:
1. Anthony M. Oreen. (2000). Introduction to political sociology. Prentice Hall, USA.
2. Max Weber. (1948). Essays in Sociology. Routledge Press, London.
3. Karl W. Deutsch. (1963). The Nerves of Government: Models of Political communication and control. Free Press, London. UK.
4. Lucian W. Pye. (ed). (1963). Communication and Political development. Prenction University New Jersey.
5. Michael Rush and Philip Althoff. (1971). An introduction to Political Sociology. Nelson, Hong Kong.
6. Parson, Talcott. (1965). Theories of society; two volumes. Free Press, London. UK.
7. Parsons, Talcott. (2002). The structure of social action. UTA Press UK.
8. S. Sidney Calmer.(1961). Introductory Readings in Political Behavior. Random McNaily USA.
9. Max Weber. (2008). The Protestant Ethics and the spirit of Capitalism. BN Publishing
10. W.G. Runciaman. (1969).Social Science and Political Theory. Cambridge University Press. UK.
11. Max Weber. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. Collier Macmillan, London.
Paper XIV:Local Government in Pakistan:
The object of this paper is to apprise the students about the system of local self government prevalent in Pakistan. It would enable them to understand the basic concepts of local government. Not only would it deal with the historical perspective of the development of local self government in Pakistan but will also attempt to make a comparative analysis with the systems prevailing in U.K. and U.S.A. This paper would comprise of the following topics;
a) Meaning, Scope, nature and approaches to the study of local government, need for local government etc.
b) Colonial heritage and evolution of local government in Pakistan
c) Problems & Issues of grass root democracy in Pakistan
d) Organizational structure of local government in Pakistan; its relations with the provincial and central government
e) Functional structure and budgeting in local government
f) A brief comparative study of local government of Pakistan, Britain and USA.
1. Cole G.D.H. (1947). Local and regional governments. Cassell Publication London. UK.
2. Cross C.A. (1962). Principles of local government law. Sweet and Maxwell, Sweden.
3. Douglas E. and Askford. (1967). National development and local reform. Princeton USA.
4. Golding I. (1975). Local government. The English University Press, Ltd.
5. Jennings Sr. Iver. (1947). Principles of Local Government Law. World Almanac Books USA.
6. Khan M.A. Hussain. (1968). Problems of Municipal Administration. National Institute Pakistan, Karachi.
7. Shaley A.N.C. (1992). The Councilor. Longmans Press England.
8. Stones, Pl. (1964). Local Government for studies. Macdonald Evans Ltd., London.
9. Wharron, J.H. (1947). The English Local Government system. George Allen University, London, UK.
10. William A. Robson. (1954). The Development of Local Government. George Allen University London, UK. Paper XV : Public Administration :
1. Public Administration ; its nature and scope ; the role of administration in a modern state; approaches to the study of public administration ; changing pattern of modern governmental organization (change from law and order and revenue collecting Government to welfare sate).
2. Bureaucracy : Theories of Bureaucracy, the nature and purpose and correctives of bureaucracy.
3. Organization theory traditional and contemporary approach; organizational equilibrium ; patterns of organization; departmentalization delegation of authority ; centralization vs. Decentralization line staff concept; leadership in ,management. Human behaviour and organization.
4. Management by autonomous or semi-autonomous bodies (Corporations. Commissions, Boards).
5. Personal management basis concept organization of personal management in Pakistan ; elements of personal management with special reference to Pakistan constitutional provisions; classification of services recruitment; training (Pre-entry and post-entry) ; placement pay employee relations ; performance ratings and promotions ; superannuation employees association or union ; conditions of service, ethical standards.
6. Financial management, nature and element ; budgeting in Pakistan, constitutional provision; concerning finance (central as well as Provincial Government) of Pakistan; capital budget ; performance budgeting ; fiscal management in Pakistan. 72
7. Planning; nature of planning; fixing the goals and criteria; organization for planning; process of planning.
8. Administrative responsibility;
(a) formal controls; legislative and judicial control of administration
(b) informal controls; types of informal controls; (public opinion, interest groups, other informal groups).
9. Public Relations; administrative public relations; Day-to-day contact between employees and citizens; publicity and report; Advisory councils.
Books Recommended:
1. Apleby Paul. H. (1961). Public Administration for a Welfare State. Asia Publishing House.
2. Blue, Peter M. (1956). Bureaucracy in Modern Society. Random House, New York.
3. Brain Chapman. (1966). The Profession of Government. Unwin Paperbacks UK.
4. Gladden, E.N. (1961). An Introduction to Public Administration. Staple Press, London.
5. Lays, Wayne, A.R. (1959). Ethics for Policy Decision. Prentice-Hall.
6. McGrecor, Douglas. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hall, Book Co., New York.
7. Pfiffner and Presthus. (1960). Public Administration. The Ronald Press, New York.
8. Shaukat Ali. (1975). Administrative Ethics in Muslim States. United Press, Lahore, Pakistan.
9. Simon Herbert A. (1958). Administrative Behavior. The Macmillan Press, New York.
10. Simon Smithburge and Thompson. (1958). Public Administration. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
11. United Nations. (2007). A handbook of Public Administration. CRC Press, France.
12. Walker Nigel. (1961). Moral in the civil Service. Edinburgh.
13. White, L.D. (1955). introduction to the Study of Public Administrations. MacMillan Company, New York.
Paper XVI : Defence and Strategic Studies :
A : Political Strategy :
1. Political Culture, National Interest and National Goals.
2. Ideology and Strategy.
3. Policy-making ; Sources, Processes, Elite Perceptions and Goal Orientations.
4. Game Theory and Diplomacy. B Economic Strategy :
1. World Economic Order.
2. Political Strategy and Economic Development.
3. Strategy of Economic Aid.
4. Political Nationalism vs. Economic Internationalism..
 C : Military Strategy :
1. Theories of Military Strategy.
2. Military in Politics.
3. Strategy of War; War as an instrument of peace; War and National integration; War as a National Goal ; Kinds of War.
4. Strategy of Peace; Cold War; Diplomacy; Alliances; Disarmament and Nuclear Proliferation; Deterrence, SALT; Military Equilibrium; Balance of Power; Conflict Resolution.
Books Recommended-
1. Andre Fontan. (1987). History of Cold War. Oxford University Press, New York.
2. Andrew M. Scott. (2009). The Functioning of International Political Systems. Macmillan, New York.
3. Clausewitz. (2008). The Principles of War. Reed Books USA.
4. David E. Apter. (1964). Ideologies and Discontent. Free Press, London .
5. E.H. Hartmann. (1963). The Relations of Nations. Oxford University Press, New York.
6. Edward Mead Earle. (ed). (1986). Makers of Moderns Strategy. Oxford University Press, UK.
7. George Liska. (1962). Nations in Alliance. Johns Hopkins Press, USA.
8. Ins L. Claude, Jr. (1962). Power and International Relations. Random House New York.
9. J.N. Rosenau. (ed). (1964). International Politics and foreign Policy. Free Press UK.
10. Larche and Said. (1963). Concepts of International Politics. Prentice Hall, USA.
11. Lloyd D. Black. (1968). The Strategy of Foreign Aid. Van Nortrand London.
12. Morton A. Kaplan. (1957). System and Process in International Politics. Mortan Chicago
13. Morton H. Halperin. (1971). Defence Strategies for Seventies. Little Brown Boston, USA.
14. Quincey Wright. (1964). A. Study of War. The University of Chicago.
15. Reo M. Christenson, et al. (1981). Ideologies and Modern Politics. Harper and Row, USA.
16. Robert Benewick, R.N. Berki and Paraekh, Eds. (1973). Knowledge and Belief on Politics. George Allen and Unwin, London.
17. Robert L. Rothtein. (1968). Alliances and Small Powers. Columbia University, USA.
18. William T. Eluhm. (1974). Ideologies and Attitudes; and Modern Politics Culture. Prentice Hall, New Jersy.
Paper XVII : Modern Political Thought - Western :
Major purpose of this course is to give a deeper understanding of the recent trends in political thought in regard to political ideologies of different political cultures.
1 The Revolution of Democratic Liberalism:
(a) Theories of constitutional Government in Europe during le century ; Rise of democratic socialism - liberal concept of authority ; Growth of democratic ideas in America.
(b) The Area of Liberal - conservative disagreement in English and American Political Thought. Liberalism and Liberal Political culture today. Ideology as a secular religion.
2. Revolutionary Collectivism :
(a) Fascism and National Socialism — their roots and origin, The Nazi version of modernity.
(b) Communism : Marxism with special reference to Communist modernity in the Soviet Union and China. Theory and practice from Lenin to Khrushchev and Mao-ze-Tung. The social and psychological background of Marxist appeal.
3. Modern Political Theories ; Syndicalism; Guild Socialism; Anarchism; Utopian Socialism; Fabianism.
4. A new focus of political unity. Origin and development of Nationalism in the West. Nationalism and revolution in 19th century. The nature of Soviet and Chinese nationalism. Development of Nationalism in Asia and Africa.
Books Recommended:
1. Arieli, Yehoshua. (1964). Individualism and Nationalism in American Ideology. Harvard University Press.
2. Armstrong, John, A. (1967). Ideology, Politics and Government in the Soviet Union. Frederick A. Preager, New York.
3. Connolly, William, E. (2006). Political Science and Ideology. Atherton Press, America.
4. Cox Richard H. (1969). Ideology-Politics and Political Theory. Wedsworth, California.
5. Milrad M. Drachkovitch. (ed). (1973). Marxist Ideology in the Contemporary World; Its appeal and paradoxes. Plainview Press, New York.
6. Herbrt Marcuse. (1972). Counter Revolution and Revolt. Bacon Press, London.
7. Kaloan H. Silveri (1970). Man's Power: A biased Guide to Political Thought and Action. Viking Press, New York. 8. Oregor, A James. (1969). The Ideology of Fascism: the Rationales of Totalitarianism. The Free Press, New York. 9. R.W. Carew Hunt. (1963). The theory and practical of communism. Penguin Books, London.
10. Thomas, Norman M. (1963). Democratic Socialism, A New appraisal. Post War World Council, New York.
11. Wakins Frederick. (1964). The Political Tradition of the West. Harvard University Press.
12. William A. Dunning. (1960). History of Political Theories. Macmillan Company, London.
13. William T. Bluhm. (1974). Ideologies and Attitudes. Englewood, Cliffs.

Paper XVIII : Modern Political Thought — Muslims :
This course is designed to study the trends of Muslim Political Thought in the Modern period in regard to the intellectual works and political and reformation movements in the modern Muslim World.
I. General trends of Muslim Political and social thought during 19th and early 20th century, with special reference to the work of Jamal ud Din Afghani, Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida.
2. Political and ideological movements in the Muslim World :
(a) Rise of Arab Nationalism.
(b) Reformation movement of lkhwan ul Muslameen in the Middle East. 25
(c) Development of Muslim Nationalism in India.
(d) Modernization in Turkey after the abolition of Khilafat; Islam and Turkish secularism.
(e) Revival of Islamic order under Aiyat Ullah Khumini.
3. Contribution of Allama Muhammad lqbal as a thinker and reformer with emphasis on the following aspects of his thought ; political significance of Khudi. Momin and Millat; His dynamic view regarding Islamic polity and Islamic Law. Abul Ala Maudoodi as a thinker. His views against secular basis of nationalism; His views regarding Islamic Polity.
5. Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah - His contribution to the ideological foundations of Pakistan. (A study of his speeches and statements is to be made to understand his views about the socio-economic and political bases of Pakistan).
Books Recommended:
1. Charles, C. Adams. (1968). Islam and Modernism in Egypt. Russell & Russell Publisher.
2. Gibb, H.A.R. (1975). Modern Trends in Islam. Librairie Du Liban Publishers.
3. Hourani. Alber. (1962). Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (198-1939) Oxford University Press
4. lqbal, Muhammad. (1962). Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publisher, Lahore.
5. Jamal, Muhammad Ahmad. (1960). The Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism. Oxford University Press UK.
6. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. (1980). Islamic Law and Constitution. Islami Academy, Lahore, Pakistan.
7. Mazhar ud Din Siddiqi. (1983). The Image of the West in lqbal. Aziz Publishers, Lahore.
8. Parveen, Shaukat Ali. (1978). The Political Philosophy of lqbal. Publishers United Ltd., Lahore.
9. Shamlu. (1982). Speeches and writings of lqbal. Aziz Publishers, Lahore
10. Sharif ul Mujahid. (1985). Pan Islamism in a History or the Freedom Movement, Vol. III 1831-1905. AJISS, USA.
11. Smith, Wlfred Cantwell. (1961). Islam in Modern History, A Mentor Book, New American Library. 26
Paper XIX: Research Methodology Paper
(X: Political System of India, Bangla Desh, Sri Lanka and Nepal
OR Paper XXI: Political System of Iran, Iraq and Egypt OR
Paper XXII : Political System of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria OR
Paper XXIII : Political System of Sweden, Norway and Denmark OR
Paper XXIV : Political System of France, Germany and Switzerland

NOTIFICATION It is hereby notified that the Vice-Chancellor has been pleased to approve the recommendations of the Academic Council made at its meeting held on 25.06.1995 regarding approval of changes in the Syllabus of M.A. (Pol. Sc.) Part-II examination of 1997 on behalf of the Syndicate under Section 15
(3) of the Punjab University Act, 1973. Revisions and up-dating of some courses of M.A. Political Science, Part-II The International system has undergone major transformation over the last four-five years. The end of the Cold War; American slogan of the New World Order in the backdrop of the Gulf Conflict; disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the breakup of Yugoslavia and conflict amongst the successor states; and the trends towards economic deregulation and trade liberalization are the leading new factors influencing international and domestic politics. These changes have necessitated revision and updating of some of the courses of Political Science for M.A. Part-I so that the students may develop a critical appraisal of the new developments. Revision and updating has been made in the following courses of M.A. Political Science Part-II: Paper VIII The Muslim World: Dynamics and Issues Paper IX External Relations of Pakistan 27 Paper X Foreign Policies of Major Powers: USA, Soviet Union/ Russia and China Paper XX Political Systems of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal (Currently, there is no detailed syllabus) The course details included in this proposal will replace the existing courses for the above mentioned papers of Political Science, M.A. Part-II. Paper VIII The Muslim World; Dynamics and Issues The purpose of this course is to examine the political dynamics of the contemporary Muslim World. Current Challenges faced by the Islamic World, both internal and external are to be studied in detail. The phenomenon of Islamic realism and the current state system of the Muslim World is examined. Some significant developments both in politics and economics are also studied. I. Historical Perspective: A brief survey of the state of the Muslim World in the early 20t Century; (a) The collapse of the state of the Muslim World in the early 20th Century. (b) The first World War and the Peace Settlement (c) The Establishment of the Current State System in the Middle East. II. The Impact of European Colonialism in the Muslim World and responses of Muslims to Western Powers: Rise of Nationalist Movements in the Muslim World. Ill. Post Second World War Developments: (a) The Arab Israeli Conflict; (i) Brief History (ii) Major Issues (iii) Efforts for the peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Role of the United States in the peace process. (b) The Iranian Revolution and its Implications on the Muslim Worlds IV Contemporary Problems and Issues: (a) Issues and Problems of Unity in the Muslim World. (b) Islamic Revivalist Phenomenon since the late 1970 with emphasis on Iran, Pakistan and Egypt. (c) Islam and Politics in Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia. V. The Development of Regional Organizations: (a) The organization of Islamic Conference. 28 (b) Arab League. (c) Economic Cooperation Organization (d) OPEC

Recommended Books:
1. Ami Ayalon. (ed). (1991). Middle Contemporary Survey. Westview Press. ,
2. Baghat Korany, and All E. Hillal Dessouki. (1984). The Foreign Policies, of Arab States, Westview Pess.
3. Bernard Lewis. (1964). The Middle East and the West. Harper, New York .
4. Daniel Pipes. (1983) In the path of God: Islam and Political Power. Basic Books, New York.
5. Eli Kedourie. (1992). Politics in the Middle East. Oxford University Press, New York,
6. George Lenczowski. (1980). The Middle East in Transition, 4th Ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. 7, James A. Bill and Robert Soringborg. (1990). Politics in the Middle East. 3rd Edition, Glenview , IL: Scott Foresman.
8. James P. Piscatori. (1991). Islamic Fundamentalism and the Gulf Crisis. The Fundamentalist Project, Chicago. American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
9. John Esposito. (1984). Islam and Politics. University Press, Syracuse.
10. John L. Esposito. (1992). The Islamic Threat : Myth or Reality. Oxford University Press, New York .
11. Melcolm H. Kerr. (1971). The Arab Cold War. Oxford University Press, London.
12. Peter Sluglett and Marion Farouk-Sluglett. (1993). The Middle East : The Arab World and its Neighbours. Times Books, London.
13. Robin Wright. (1995). Islam and Democracy, Foreign Affairs. Royal Institute of International Affairs in London. 14. Suroosh Irfani. (1983). Iran's Islamic Revolution. Vanguard Books, Lahore.
15. Waheed Uz Zaman. (1985). Iranian Revolution. Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.
16. William R. Polk. (1980) The Arab World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Paper IX : External Relations of Pakistan
Major Determinants and Objectives of Foreign Policy An overview of the Changing Patterns of Foreign Policy The Early years of independence (1947-53) Pakistan and the Western Alliance system(1954-62) Reappraisal of Foreign Policy ;
bilateralism and independent Foreign Policy (1962- 71). Multifaceted and nonaligned relations in the post-1971 Indo-Pakistan war period. Pakistan and Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan. The end of the Cold War, The New World Order and Pakistan's Foreign Policy.
Pakistan and the Muslim World: Pakistan's relation with the Muslim States with special reference to the Middle East and Central Asia. Relations with the U.S. Relations with the Soviet Union Russia. Relations with China. Relations with India.
29 Major causes of strains and problems in Pakistan-India relations. History of the relations: Problems in the early years of independence

Recommended Books
The Kashmir dispute ;
The 1965 War and the Tashkent Declaration: The 1971 War ;
the Shimla Agreement and the subsequent pattern of relationship developments since 1980. Books: 1. Alastair Lamb. (1993). Kashmir ;
A Disputed Legacy, 1846-1990. Oxford University Press, Karachi. 2. Anwar H. Syed. (1974). China and Pakistan : Diplomacy of an Entente Gordiale. Oxford University Press, Karachi. 3. Farhat Mahmud. (1991). A History of Pakistan-U.S. Relations. Vanguard Books, Lahore. 4. G.W. Choudhury. (1968). Pakistan's Relations with India. Preager, New York. 5. G.W. Choudhury. (1975). India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Major Powers. The Free Press, New York. 6. Hassan Askari Rizvi. (1993). Pakistan and the Geo strategic Environment;
A Study of Foreign Policy. Macmillan and St. Martin's, London. 7. Lawrence Ziring. (1982). The Sub-Continent in World Politics. Preager, New York. 8. Leo E. Rose and Noor Hussain. (eds.). (1985). United States-Pakistan Relations. Institute of East Asian Studies, Berkeley. University of California. 9. Muhammad Ayub Khan. (1967). Friends Not Masters (Chapters on Foreign Policy). Oxford University Press, Karachi. 10. Mujataba Rizvi. (1971). Frontiers of Pakistan. National Publishing House, Karachi. 11. Noor Hussain and Leo. (1988). United States-Pakistan, Social, Political and Economic Factors. Institute of East Asian Studies, Berkeley. University of California. 12. Pervaiz lqbal Cheema. (1990). Pakistan's Defence Policy, 1947-58. Macmillan, London. 13. Rasul Bakhsh Rais. (1994). War without Winners. Oxford University Press, Karachi. 14. Robert G. Wirsing. (1991). Pakistan's Security under Zia, 1977-88. Macmillan, London. 15. S.M. Burke. Pakistan's Foreign Policy. (Revised edition). Oxford University Press, Karachi. 16. Shinn Tahir-Kheli. (1982). United States and Pakistan. Preager, New York. Paper-X: Foreign Policies of Major Powers: USA, The Soviet Union/Russia and China 1 Determinants of Foreign Policy: Geographic, Strategic;
Ideological, Economic Political and Military. 2. Bases and Determinants of foreign Policies of the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia and China. 3 The Cold War: The origins and Development of the Cold War;
conflict of interests between the two super powers. The nature of the Cold War; Political, economic and military dimensions;
Deterrence. 4 From Confrontation to peaceful Coexistence and Detentes. 5 Sino-Soviet Relations;
Development and Nature of the Relationship ;
The causes of Conflict and efforts to Improve the Relations. 6 Sino-American Relations ;
Initial Conflict ;
Transformation since 1971 ;
and the changing nature of Bilateral Interaction ;
Relations in the Post Cold War era.
7 Major Powers and the Middle East. 30
8 Major powers and South Asia.
9 The Contemporary International scene the end of the Cold War and the Disintegration of Soviet Union. The New World Order and the Global Agenda;
Rationale for future conflicts;
An Examination of Huntington's Clash of Civilization Thesis;
and New U.S. Policy initiatives towards South Asia. Books .
1. A Doak Barett. (1985). The making of Foreign Policy in China: Structure and Process. Boulden, Co: Westview Press.
2. Adam B. Ulam. (1971). (1981). The Rivals : America and Russia since World War-II. Penguin Books.
3. Alvin Z. Rubinstein. (1976). Soviet and Chinese Influence in the Third World. Praeger, New York.
4. Charles W. Kegley, Jr. Eugene R. Wittkopf. (1987). American Foreign Policy : Pattern and process. (3rci ed). Macmillan Education Ltd, London.
5. G. Ginsbourgs, Alvin Rubinstein and O.M. Smolansky. (eds.). (1993). Russia and America , From Rivalry to Reconciliation. M.E. Sharpe, New York.
6. Henry Kissinger. (1969). American Foreign Policy. W.Northon and Co., New York.
7. Henry Kissinger. (1994). Diplomacy. Simon and Schuster, New York.
8. Henry T. Nash. (1985). American Foreign Policy : A Search for Security. (3`d ed.). Pacific Grove, CA Brooks- Cole Publishing Co.
9. James L. Ray. (1992). Global Politics. (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
10. John Lucas. (1966). A New History of the Cold War. Anchor Books, New York.
11. John Spanier. (1975). American Foreign Policy, Since World War II. Praeger, New York.
12. Petter J. Schraeder. (1992). Intervention in the 1980s, U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World. Boulden Co. Lynne Rienner Publisher.
13. Richard Nixon. (1992). Seize the Moment. Simon and Schuster, New York.
14. Robbert Rubinstein, E. Kanet. (ed.). (1982). Soviet Foreign Policy in the Eighties. Praeger, New York.
15. Robbin F. Laird and E. Honffman. (eds.). (1986). Soviet Foreign Policy in a Changing World. Aldine, New York. 16. Robert 0. Freedam. (1982). Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East since 1970. Praeger, New York.
17. Roy. C. Macridis. (ed). (1992). Foreign Policy in World Politics. (8m ed.) Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall.
18. Samuel S. Kim. (ed.). (1990). China and the World ;
Foreign Policy in the Post-Mao Era. (2nd ed.). Baulden Co. Westview Press. 19. Susan L. Clark. (ed.). (1989). Gorbachev's Agenda: Changes in Soviet Domestic and Foreign Policy Boulder Co. Westview Press. 20. Watler Jones. (1988). The Logic of International Relations. (6th ed.). Scott, Foreman and Co, Boston.

Paper XX: Political Systems of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. INDIA.
Foundations and Sources of the Political System. The Constitution and the System of Government. Federalism and National Integration. 31 Secularism: Theory and Practice with special reference to the conditions of the Minorities, especially the Muslims. The cast system and Politics. Political Parties: Features: The Congress Party;
its role and internal dynamics;
Other Political Parties and their coalitions which ruled at the Union Level. Problems and Prospects of the electoral Process and democracy. BANGLADESH Bangladesh Nationalism and Identity. The Mujib Era. Military's Role in Politics: Coups and Military regimes (i.e. General Zia-ur- Rehman, General H. M. Ershad). Post Martial Law- Civilian Political Process. Problems and prospects of Democracy. SRI LANKA. The Heritage/ sources of the Political System. The Political process 1948-77, with focus on the Parliamentary system, Political Groups and leaders. The 1978 constitutional changes;
The Presidential System. The Ethnic Conflict. NEPAL The Political Heritage. Political and Constitutional developments since 1950-51 and with special reference to paty governments (1951-59) and Political instability, the imposition of King's direct rule. The 1962 Constitution and the Governmental Process, the Panchayat and party less democracy. The Monarch;
its changing role. The Democracy Movement 1989-90; and the 1990 Constitution; performance of the Parliamentary System since 1991.
1. Baxter, Craig, Malik, Kennedy and Oberst. (2000). Government and Politics in South Asia. or later edition. Westview Press, London, UK.
2. Crag Baxter. (1984). Bangladesh: A New Nation in an old Setting. Westview Press, London, UK.
3. Hossain, Golam. (1991): Civil Military Relations in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study. (with an introduction by Dr. Peter H. Lyon).. Academic Publishers, Dhaka.
4. Hanson and Janet Douglas. (1972). Indian Democracy. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, UK.
5. James Manor (ed.). (1984). Sri Lanka in Change and Crisis. Groom Helm, London. 32
6. Jayaratnman & Dennis Dalton (eds.). (2001). The States of South Asia Problems of National Integration. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, London.
7. Jeyaratnam Wilson. (1979). Politics in Sri Lanka. Mcmillan Press, London.
8. Leo E. Rose and Margaret Fisher. (1976). The Politics of Nepal. Cornell University Press, New York.
9. Norman D. Palmer. (1971). The Indian Political System. Oxford University Press, USA.
10. Robert Hardgrave. (1980). India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. or later edition. HAR Anand, P.U.. India, New Delhi.
11. Robert W. Stern. (1993). Changing India. Cambridge University Press, UK.
12. Taulkdar Maniruzzaman. (1982). Group Interest and Political Change: Studies in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Bangladesh Society of International Studies. 13. George Delury.(1987). World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties. Fact and Files. New York, USA. For the latest developments: Asian Survey (Berkeley). Far Eastern Economic Review (Weekly; Hong Kong). Regional Studies (Islamabad). Optional
Paper-XXV Public Policy Topic 1 The Study of Public Policy •
What is Public Policy? • Categories of Public Policies • Why Study Public Policy?
• Approaches to Policy Study Topic
2 Policy Formation • Policy Problems • The Policy Agenda • The Agenda-Setting Process • Non Decisions • The Formation of Policy Proposals Topic
3 Policy Adoption • Theories of Decision Making • Decision Criteria • The Public Interest • Styles of Decision Making 33 (3J Topic
4 Policy Implementation • Who Implements Policy • Administrative Organization • Administrative Politics • Administrative Policy Making • Techniques of Control • Compliance Topic
5 Policy Impact, Evaluation, And Change • Policy Impact • Problems in Policy Evaluation • Policy Evaluation Process Topic
6 Policy Making in Pakistan • Role of Institutions • Role of Policy Makers Readings: • Allison, G.T. (1995). Essens of Decision. Mass: Little Brown, Boston. • Baldwin, R. (1995). Rules and Government. Oxford University Press. • Dunleavy, P. and B.0 Leary. (1987).
Theories of the State. Macmillan, London. • Dunleavy, P. (1995). Policy disasters. Explaining the U.K. 's record. Public Policy and Administration. • Fisher, Frank; Geral-J Mulles. (Ed.).(2006). Hand Book of Public Policy Analysis. MacMillan, New York. • Hill, Michael. (1997). The Policy Process in the Modern State. Prentice Hall, London. • Shafqat, Saeed. (1991). Political System of Pak and Public Policy. Progressive Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan.
Optional Paper-XXVI Political Geography
All politics are embedded in geographical space. Political Geography examines the ways in which humans have arranged the territory of the Earth's surface. This course concerns itself with the internal and external relationships of politically organized areas. It also examines the effects of political actions, on social and economic conditions and with the significance of geographical factors behind political situations, problems and conflicts. 34
Course Objectives:
1. Discuss the meaning and history behind the concept of "nation", "state" and "nation- state".
2. Explore the background of various regional conflicts, boundary disputes and social problems.
3. Compare distribution of major political systems and their applications to "territory".
4. Consider how geography impacts international law, empires and civil divisions.
5. Understand the politics of trade, migration, language, ethnicity, ecology and the environment.

Political Geography Course Outline
State Territory and Regulations
• Nation, state and Minority Groups.
• The State in Global Perspective.
• The State's changing Forma and Functions. Politics, Power and Place
• The Political Geographies of the Nations.
• Politics, Power and Place.
• Contesting Place. Peoples, Policy and Geography
• Democracy, Participation and Citizenship
• Public Policy and Political Geography Population pressure, Resource Depletion and the preservation of the Environment
• Population momentum
• From Population explosion to population implosion; A Demographic Transition?
• Environmental Security and Sustainable; Development
• The Ecopolitics of the Atmosphere
• Climate Change
• Climate change Culprits
• Ozone Protection
1. B. Graham et al. (2000). A geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy, Arnold, London (esp. ch. 3). 35
2. B. Graham. (2000). The Past in Place: Historical Geographies of Identity, in: B. Graham & C. Nash. (eds). Modern Historical Geographies. Longman, Harlow, pp. 70-99.
3. D. Atkinson et al. (eds). (2005). Cultural Geography: A Critical Dictionary of Concepts. I.B. Tauris, London.
4. D. Storey. (2001). Territory: The Claiming of Space. Prentice Hall, Harlow.
5. G. Delanty & P.O. Mahony. (2002). Nationalism and Social Theory. Sage, London.
6. H. Bhabha. (1990). Dissemination: Time, Narrative and the Margins of the Modern Nation. in: Bhahba. (ed.). Nation and Narration, pp.. 291-322.
7. J. Agnew et al. (eds). (2002). A Companion to Political Geography. Blackwell, Oxford. (esp. ch. I).
8. J.Gillis. (ed.). (1994). Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.
9. K. Cox. (2002). Political Geography: Territory, State and Society. Blackwell Publisher, Oxford, UK (esp. ch 6-7).
10. M. Castells, (1997). The Power of Identity. Blackwell. Blackwell Publisher, Oxford, UK. (esp. ch.I).
Optional Paper-xxvii Governance and Development
1. Introduction
2. Nature of the Problem a. Rule of the Government b. When Government fails.
3. Improving public sector management a. Accountability. b. Nature and scope of accountability. c. Macro level accountability. d. Decentralization of micro-macro linkage e. Micro level accountability.
4. Legal frame work for development a. A set of rule known in advance. b. Rules that are actually enforced. c. Ensuring application of the rule. d. Conflict resolutions. e. Amendment procedures.
5. Information and Transparency
a. Information, Transparency and Economic efficiency. 36 b. Prevention of corruption.
c. The issue of military expenditure. d. Analysis of dissemination capacity.
6. Governance and Civil Services a. Governance Reforms b. Good Governance for sustainable development
7. Issue of Governance :A Case Study of Pakistan
1. Ahmed, Shamim. (2002). Good Governance and Accountability in Bangladesh. (A Workshop Report). News Network, Dhaka.
2. Alam, Shahidul. M. and Nasser, Ahmed. (1994).
Good Governance in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Civil Service (Administration) Academy. Paper was presented at seminar on Good Governance, August), Dhaka. 3. Anas Malik. (2010). Political Survival in Pakistan Beyond Ideology. Routledge.
4. Ashraf, Ali. (2001). Good Governance: and Sustainable Development. The Daily Independent, 28 February.
5. Federico N. Deluca. (2008). Economics Corruption Detection, Cast and Prevention. (ed.) Nova Science Publisher, Inc. New York.
6. Hye, Hasnat. A. (2000). Governance: South Asian Perspective. University Press Limited, Dhaka.
7. Jhon Tomancy. (2010). Hand Book of Local and Regional Development. Edited by Andy Pike, Andres Rodriques-Pos. Routledge.
8. Khaleque, A. (2005). Instituting Good Governance: Role of Civil Society Imperative. The Daily Star, Dhaka, 13, January.
9. Sohan, Rehman. (1998). Towards a Theory of Governance and Development: Learning from East Asia. University Press Limited, Dhaka.
10. Tasneem, Ahmad Siddiqui. (2001). Towards Good Governance. Oxford University Press, Karachi.