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Course HIS/604 Later Mughals & British India (1707-1857)
1. Brief Description:

The course deals with the period of decline of the Mughal Empire. The causes of the downfall and the resultant institutional breakdown have been discussed. However, it also focuses on the new regional and foreign powers which were expanding their influence. The Muslim revivalist and resistance movements have also been highlighted in this course.
2. Aims & Objectives:
After completing this course, the students will be able:
¾ Comprehend the dynamics and complexities of Mughal downfall
¾ Understand the ways and means of colonial and regional powers to establish their rule
¾ Analyze the causes of failure of revivalist and resistance movements
3. Contents:
™ Sources:
• Khafi Khan Muntakhib-ul-Lubab
• Muqarrab Khan Bahadur Shah Nama
• Muhammad Qasim Ibrat Ibrat Nama
• Muhammad Ali Panipati Tarikh-I-Muzaffari
• Khair-ud-Din Allahabadi Ibrat Nama
• Ghulam Husain Tabatabai Siyarul Mutakhirin
™ Imperial Politics of the Mughals 1707-1857
™ Theories of Mughal Downfall
• Degeneration of Muslim Character
• Factional Feuds of Mughal Nobility
• Crisis of Mansabdari System
• Great Firms and Financial Upheaval
• British Technological Superiority
™ Growth of Independent and Semi-Independent States
™ East India Company and Establishment of Colonial Rule
Clive—Hastings—Cornwallis—Wellesley—Dalhousie ™ Revivalist and Resistance Movements
• Shah Wali Ullah and his family.
• Syed Ahmed Shaheed and the Jihad Movement.
• Haji Shariat Ullah, Titu Mir and Fariazi Movement.
• Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
• War of Independence 1857.
™ Intellectual and Literary Developments 4. Basic Readings:
Chandra, Satish. Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707-1740. Aligarh, 1957. Marshall, P.J. Eighteenth Century in Indian History: Evolution or Revolution? New
Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.
5. Additional Readings:
Abbas, S. Ali. Socio-Economic Crisis in the 18th Century. Lahore, 1965.
Alam, Muzaffar. Crisis of the Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh & the Punjab,1707-0748. Delhi 1986.
— and Sanjay Subrahmanyam. (ed.) The Mughal State 1526-1750. New Delhi, 2000.
Ali, M. Athar. “The Passing of Empire: The Mughal Case.” Modern Asia Studies, Vol. 9 No. 3, 1975, pp.385-396.
—The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb. Delhi, 1997.
Ashraf, K.M. Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan. Delhi, 1970.
Barnett, Richard B. North India between Empires: Awadh, the Mughals & the British,1720-1801. New Delhi: 1987.
Bayly, C.A. Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (The New
Cambridge History of India, Vol. II.2).
—Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars : north Indian Society in the age of British expansion. Cambridge, 1983.
Gupta, Hari Ram. Later Mughal History of the Punjab, 1707-1793. Lahore, 1944.
Habib, Irfan (ed.) Confronting Colonialism: Resistance & Modernization under Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan. London, 2002.
Hasan, Iqtida. Later Mughals & Urdu Literature. Lahore, 1995.
Husain, Yusuf. First Nizam: The Life & Times of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asafjah I. London,1963.
Irvine, William. Later Mughals. Lahore, n.d.
Khan,Gulfishan. Indian Muslim Perceptions of the West during the Eighteenth
Century. Karachi, 1998.
Lockhart. Nadir Shah.
Malik, Zahir-ud-din. The Reign of Muhammad Shah. Bombay, 1977.
Pearson, M.N. “Shivaji and the Decline of the Mughal Empire”, The Journal of Asian Studies. Vol XXXV. No. 2, 1976, pp.221-35.
Rizvi, Athar Abbas. Shah Wali Ullah and His times. Canberra, 1980.
———————. Shah Abdul Aziz and His times. Canberra, 1983. Roberts, P.E. British in India. Oxford, 1938.
Russell, Ralph & Khurshidul Islam. Three Mughal Poets: Mir, Sauda, Mir Hasan. Cambridge, 1968.
Sarkar, Jadunath. Fall of the Mughal Empire.
Singh, Ganda. Ahmad Shah Durrani. Bombay, 1959.
Spear, Percival. Twilight of the Mughals: Studies in Late Mughal Delhi. Cambridge,1951.
Storey, C.A. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey of Persian Literature. London, 1928.
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