CSS English MCQS with Answers Set 45

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Ocean water plays an indispensable role in supporting life.The great ocean basins hold about 300 million cubic miles of water.From this vast amount,about 80,000 cubic miles of water are sucked into the atmosphere each year by evaporation and returned by precipitation and drainage to the ocean.More than 24,000 cubic miles of rain descend annually upon the continents.This vast amount is required to replenish the lakes and streams,springs and water tables on which all flora and fauna are dependent.Thus the hydrosphere permits organic existence.
The hydrosphere has strange characteristics because water has properties unlike those of any other liquid.One anomaly is that water upon freezing expands by about 9 per cent,whereas most liquids contract on cooling.for this reason,ice floats on water bodies instead of sinking to the bottom.If the ice sank,the hydrosphere would soon be frozen solidly except for a thin layer of surface melt water during the summer season,Thus,all aquatic life would be destroyed and the interchange of warm cold currents,which moderates climate,would be notably absent.<
Another outstanding characteristic of water is that water has a heat capacity which is the highest of all liquids and solids except ammonia.This characteristic enables the oceans to absorb and store vast quantities of heat,thereby often preventing climatic extremes in addition water dissolve more substances than any other liquid.It is this characteristic which helps make oceans a great storehouse for minerals which have been washed down from the continents.In several areas of the world these minerals are being commercially exploited.Solar evaporation of salt is widely practised,potash is extracted from the Dead Sea,and magnesium is produced from sea water along the American Gulf Coast.
The author’s main purpose in this passage is to
Describe the properties and uses of water
Illustrate the importance of conserving water
Reveal the extent of the earth’s ocean masses
Compare water with other liquids

One phase of the business cycle is the expansion phase,This phase is a twofold one,including recovery and prosperity,During the recovery period there is ever-growing expansion of existing facilities,and new facilities for production are created.more businesses are created and older ones expanded.Improvements of various kinds are made.There is an ever-increasing optimism about the future of economic growth.Much capital is invested in machinery or “heavy” industry.More labour is employed.More raw materials are required.As one part of the economy develops.other parts are affected.For example a great expansion in automobiles results in an expansion of the steel,glass and rubber industries.Roads are required;thus the cement and machinery industries are stimulated.Demand for labour and materials results in greater prosperity for workers and suppliers of raw  materials,including farmers.this increases purchasing power and the volume of goods bought and sold.Thus prosperity is diffused among the various segments of the population.This prosperity period may continue to rise and rise without an apparent end.However,a time comes when this phase reaches a peak and stops spiralling upwards.This is the end of the expansion phase.
Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
Inflation is a factor that must be taken into consideration in any discussion of the expansion phase.
The farmer;s role during the expansion phase is of vital importance.
Some industries are,by their very nature,cyclical having regular phases of expansion and recession.
The other phase of the business cycle is called the recession phase.
Union demands may also have an effect on business cycles.

For me,scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences,natural sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological sciences).and sciences dealing with mankind(psychology,sociology, all the sciences of cultural achievements,every kind of historical knowledge).Apart from these sciences is philosophy,about which we will talk shortly.In the first place,all this is pure or theoretical knowledge sought only for the purpose of understanding in order to fulfil the need to understand that is irtrinsic and comsubstantial to man.What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know.If man did not know that the world existed,and that the world was of a certain kind,that he was in the world and that he himself was of a certain kind,he wouldn’t be man.The technical aspects of applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance,because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to a pursue a life increasingly more truly human.
But even while enjoying the results of technical progress,he must defend the primacy and autonomy of pure knowledge.Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable success,but not the kind of important result whose revolutionary scope is in large part unforeseen,except by the imagination of the Utopians.Let me  recall well-known example.If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to the investigation of conic sections,zealously and without the least suspicion that it might someday be useful it would not have been possible centuries later to navigate far from shore.The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments,carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity,would eventually lead to modern electrical technology without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life.Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake,because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance but in addition it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had not been sought disinterestedly.
It can inferred from the passage that to the author man’s need to know is chiefy important in that it?
Defines man’s essential humanity
Allows the human race to progress technically
Has increased as our knowledge of the world has grown
Encompasses both the physical and social sciences
Demonstrates human vulnerability

Observe the dialemma of the fungus: it is a plant,but it possesses no chlorophyll.While all other plants put the sun’s energy to work for them combining he nutrients of ground and air into the body structure,the chlorophyllous fungus must look elsewhere for an energy supply.It finds it in those other plants which,having received their energy free from the sun,relinquish it at some point in their cycle either to animals (like us humans) or to fungi.
In this search for energy the fungus has become the earth’s major source of not and decay.Wherever you see mold forming on a piece of bread,or a pile of leaves turning to compost,or a blown-down tree becoming pulp on the ground,you are watching a fungus eating.Without fungus action the earth would be piled high with the dead plant life of past centuries.In fact,certain plants which contain resins that are toxic to fungi will last indefinitely;specimens of the redwood,for instance,can still be found resting on the forest floor centuries after having been blown down.
Which of the following words best describes the fungus as depicted in the passage?
Toxic
Unevolved
Sporadic
Parasitic
Enigmatic

One phase of the business cycle is the expansion phase,This phase is a twofold one,including recovery and prosperity,During the recovery period there is ever-growing expansion of existing facilities,and new facilities for production are created.more businesses are created and older ones expanded.Improvements of various kinds are made.There is an ever-increasing optimism about the future of economic growth.Much capital is invested in machinery or “heavy” industry.More labour is employed.More raw materials are required.As one part of the economy develops.other parts are affected.For example a great expansion in automobiles results in an expansion of the steel,glass and rubber industries.Roads are required;thus the cement and machinery industries are stimulated.Demand for labour and materials results in greater prosperity for workers and suppliers of raw  materials,including farmers.this increases purchasing power and the volume of goods bought and sold.Thus prosperity is diffused among the various segments of the population.This prosperity period may continue to rise and rise without an apparent end.However,a time comes when this phase reaches a peak and stops spiralling upwards.This is the end of the expansion phase.
Which of the following statements is the best example of the optimism mentioned in line 4 of the passage as being part of the expansion phase?
Industrial firms allocate monies for the purchase of machine tools.
Full employment is achieved at all levels of the economy.
Public funds are designated for the construction of new highways designed to stimulate tourism.
As technology advance innovative businesses replace antiquated firms.
The prices of agricultural commodities are increased at the producer level

Ocean water plays an indispensable role in supporting life.The great ocean basins hold about 300 million cubic miles of water.From this vast amount,about 80,000 cubic miles of water are sucked into the atmosphere each year by evaporation and returned by precipitation and drainage to the ocean.More than 24,000 cubic miles of rain descend annually upon the continents.This vast amount is required to replenish the lakes and streams,springs and water tables on which all flora and fauna are dependent.Thus the hydrosphere permits organic existence.
The hydrosphere has strange characteristics because water has properties unlike those of any other liquid.One anomaly is that water upon freezing expands by about 9 per cent,whereas most liquids contract on cooling.for this reason,ice floats on water bodies instead of sinking to the bottom.If the ice sank,the hydrosphere would soon be frozen solidly except for a thin layer of surface melt water during the summer season,Thus,all aquatic life would be destroyed and the interchange of warm cold currents,which moderates climate,would be notably absent.<
Another outstanding characteristic of water is that water has a heat capacity which is the highest of all liquids and solids except ammonia.This characteristic enables the oceans to absorb and store vast quantities of heat,thereby often preventing climatic extremes in addition water dissolve more substances than any other liquid.It is this characteristic which helps make oceans a great storehouse for minerals which have been washed down from the continents.In several areas of the world these minerals are being commercially exploited.Solar evaporation of salt is widely practised,potash is extracted from the Dead Sea,and magnesium is produced from sea water along the American Gulf Coast.
The author organises the passage by?
Definition of key terms
General statements followed by examples
Hypothesis and proof
Comparison and contrast
Juxtaposition of true and untrue ideas

For me,scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences,natural sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological sciences).and sciences dealing with mankind(psychology,sociology, all the sciences of cultural achievements,every kind of historical knowledge).Apart from these sciences is philosophy,about which we will talk shortly.In the first place,all this is pure or theoretical knowledge sought only for the purpose of understanding in order to fulfil the need to understand that is irtrinsic and comsubstantial to man.What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know.If man did not know that the world existed,and that the world was of a certain kind,that he was in the world and that he himself was of a certain kind,he wouldn’t be man.The technical aspects of applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance,because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to a pursue a life increasingly more truly human.
But even while enjoying the results of technical progress,he must defend the primacy and autonomy of pure knowledge.Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable success,but not the kind of important result whose revolutionary scope is in large part unforeseen,except by the imagination of the Utopians.Let me  recall well-known example.If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to the investigation of conic sections,zealously and without the least suspicion that it might someday be useful it would not have been possible centuries later to navigate far from shore.The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments,carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity,would eventually lead to modern electrical technology without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life.Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake,because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance but in addition it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had not been sought disinterestedly.
The author points out that the Greeks who studied conic sections?
Worked with electricity
Were interested in navigation
Were forced to resign themselves to failure
Invented modern mathematical applications
Were unaware of the value of their studies

The history of mammals dates back at least to Triassic time.Development was retarded,however,until the sudden acceleration of evolutional change that occurred in the oldest Paleocene.This led in Eocene time to increase in average size,larger mental capacity,and special adaptations for different modes of life.In the Oligocene Epoch,there was further improvement,with appearance of some new lines and extinction of others.Miocene and Pliocene time was marked by culmination of several groups and continued approach toward modern characters.The peak of the career of mamals in variety and average large size was attained in the Miocene.
The adaptation of mammals to almost all possible modes of life parallels that of the reptiles in Mesozoic time,and except for greater intelligence,the mammals do not seem to have done much better than corresponding reptilian forms.The bat is doubtless a better flying animal than the pterosaur,but the dolphin horse and the antelope must excel any of the dinosaurs.The tyrannosaur was a more ponderous and powerful carnivore than any flesh-eating mammal,but the lion or tiger is probably a more efficient and dangerous beast of prey because of a superior brain.The significant point to observe is that different branches of the mammals gradually fitted themselves for all sorts of life,grazing on the plains and able to run swiftly (horse,deer,bison).living in rivers and swamps (hippopotamus,beaver),dwelling in trees (sloth,monkey) digging underground (mole,rodent),feeding on flesh in the forest (tiger) and on the plain (wolf),swimming in the sea (dolphin,whale,seal) and flying in the air (bat).Man is able by mechanical means to conquer the physical world and to adapt himself to almost any set of conditions.
This adaptation produces gradual changes of from and structure.It is biologically characteristic of the youthful,plastic stage of a group.Early in its career,an animal assemblage seems to possess capacity for change,which,as the unit becomes old and fixed disappears.The generalised types of organisms retain longest the ability to make adjustments when required,and it is from them that new,fecund stocks take origin – certianly not from any specialised end-products.So,in the mammals we witness the birth plastic spread in many directions,increasing specialisation,and in some branches,the extinction which we have learned from observation of the geologic record of life is a characteristic of the evolution of life.
With which of the following proverbial expressions about human existence would the author be most likely to agree?
A short life.but a merry one.
The more things change the more they remain the same.
It’s a cruel world.
All the world’s stage.
Footprints in the sands of time.

Ocean water plays an indispensable role in supporting life.The great ocean basins hold about 300 million cubic miles of water.From this vast amount,about 80,000 cubic miles of water are sucked into the atmosphere each year by evaporation and returned by precipitation and drainage to the ocean.More than 24,000 cubic miles of rain descend annually upon the continents.This vast amount is required to replenish the lakes and streams,springs and water tables on which all flora and fauna are dependent.Thus the hydrosphere permits organic existence.
The hydrosphere has strange characteristics because water has properties unlike those of any other liquid.One anomaly is that water upon freezing expands by about 9 per cent,whereas most liquids contract on cooling.for this reason,ice floats on water bodies instead of sinking to the bottom.If the ice sank,the hydrosphere would soon be frozen solidly except for a thin layer of surface melt water during the summer season,Thus,all aquatic life would be destroyed and the interchange of warm cold currents,which moderates climate,would be notably absent.<
Another outstanding characteristic of water is that water has a heat capacity which is the highest of all liquids and solids except ammonia.This characteristic enables the oceans to absorb and store vast quantities of heat,thereby often preventing climatic extremes in addition water dissolve more substances than any other liquid.It is this characteristic which helps make oceans a great storehouse for minerals which have been washed down from the continents.In several areas of the world these minerals are being commercially exploited.Solar evaporation of salt is widely practised,potash is extracted from the Dead Sea,and magnesium is produced from sea water along the American Gulf Coast.
Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
Another remarkable property of ice is its strength
Now let us consider the great land masses.
Water has the ability to erode the land.
Magnesium is widely used in metallurgical processes
Droughts and flooding are two types of disasters associated with water.

Rocks which have solidified directly from molten materials are called igneous rocks.Igneous rocks are commonly referred to as primary rocks because they are the original source of material found in sedimentaries and metamorphics.Igneous rocks compose the greater part of the earth’s crust,but they are generally covered at the surface by a relatively thin layer of sedimentary or metamorphic rocks.Igneous rocks are distinguished by the following characteristics:
(1) they contain no fossils
(2) they have no regular arrangement of layers
(3) they are nearly always made up of crystals.

Sedimentary rocks are composed largely of minute fragments derived from the disintegration of existing rocks and in some instances from the remains of animal As sediments are transported.Individual fragments are assorted according to size.Distinct layers of such sediments as gravels,sand,and clay build up as they are deposited by water and occasionally wind.These sediments vary in size with the material and the power of the eroding agent.Sedimentary materials are laid down in layers called strata.
When sediments harden into sedimentary rocks,the names applied to them change to indicate the change in physical state.Thus,small stones and gravel cemented together are known as conglomerates;cemented sand becomes sandstone;and hardened clay becomes shale.In addition to these,Other sedimentary rocks such as limestone frequently result from the deposition of dissolved material.The ingredient parts are normally precipitated by organic substance such as shells of clams or hard skeletons of other marine life.
Both igneous and sedimentary rocks may be changed by pressure,heat,solution,or cementing action.When individual grains from existing rocks tend to deform and interlock they are called metamorphic rocks.For example granite,an igneous rock,may be metamorphosed into a gneiss or a schist.Limestone,a sedimentary rock,when subjected to heat and pressure may become marble,a metamorphic rock.Shale under pressure becomes slate.
The passage would be most likely to appear in a

Pamphlet promoting conservation of natural resources
Teaching manual accompanying an earth science text
Technical article for geologists
Nonfiction book explaining where to find the results of sedimentation
Newspaper feature explaining how oil is found

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