1. Brief Description:
The period of Umayyads and Abbasid dynasty is the classical period of Islamic History. After the end of Pious Caliphate, they laid the foundations of intellectual and cultural effervescence of Islamic civilization. Besides studying cultural and intellectual currents of the period, this course also deals with the administrative setup and political ideals of the ruling families.
2. Aims & Objectives:
After studying this course, the students will be to:
¾ Understand the transformation from Khilafat-e-Rashida to autocratic / monarchical system of government.
¾ Comprehend the administrative setup and expansionist policies pursued by the Umayyads & Abbasides.
¾ Appreciate the religio-political trends and cultural and intellectual developments of the period.
3. Contents:
™ Umayyad Caliphate:
• Amir Muawiya: Domestic and Foreign policy, Consolidation of Power and Administration, His Character and Achievements.
• Tragedy of Karbala: Nomination of Yazid and His Autocratic Rule, Resistance of Hazrat Imam Hussain and the Tragedy of Karbala, Its Effects on Islamic History.
• Marwan: Battle of Marij-e-Rahit, His Internal Policy and Consolidation of Power.
• Abdul Malik: Consolidation of his Power, His Character and Administrative Reforms, Abdullah bin Zubair & his Rule and Character.
• Walid: His Conquests and their Effects, Internal Policy and Character.
• Sulaiman: His Character and Achievements.
• Hazrat Umar Bin Abdul Aziz: His Early Life, His Accession, Administrative and Religious Reforms, His Character.
• Hasham: His Literary Taste, His Estimate.
• Causes of the Decline of the Umayyad Rule.
• Administration: Central and Provincial Administration of the Umayyads,
Judiciary and Military System.
• Culture: Literature, Architecture, Music, Education.
• Relations of the Umayyads with the Western World.
™ Abbasid Caliphate:
• Abbasides and their Movement, their Accession to Power. Character of Abbasides.
• Caliph Al-Saffah: His Character and Rule.
• Abu Jafar al-Mansur: His Political Policy, Character and Achievements.
• Mehdi: Emergence of the Zindiqs, Administrative Policy, His Estimate.
• Harun-ur-Rashid: Barmaki Family, Its Rise and Fall, Intellectual Development, Character and Achievement.
• Al-Mutasim: Mutazilites and Tussle with Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Rise of the Turks.
• Al-Wathiq: Revolt of the Arabs, Murder of Ahmad bin Nasr.
• Al-Mutawakkel: Relations with the Turks, His Religions Policy, Character.
• Role of the Buwaihids and the Seljuqs.
• Cause of the Downfall of the Abbasids.
• Central and Provincial Administration, Judiciary and Military Systems.
• The Mutazillites and Asharites.
• Architecture, Paintings Culture, Art, Music.
• Relations of the Abbasides with the West.
a. Basic Reading:
b. Additional Readings:
Ameer Ali, Syed. The Spirit of Islam
Aslam, M. Muslim Conduct of State
Holt, P.M. Cambridge History of Islam
Hourani, Albert. A History of Arab People
Imamuddin, S. M. A Political History of the Muslims
Mahmud, S. F. A Short History of Islam
Rostenthal, Franz. The Classical Heritage in Islam
Siddiqi, Amir Hasan. Cultural Centres of Islam
Watt, Montgomery. The Majesty That was Islam
Wellhausen, J. Arab Empire and its Fall.
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